Ankle Sprain FAQs
A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.
Excessive sweating in the palms
(palmar hyperhidrosis) is a common
condition affecting about 1 to 4 %
of the population. Unfortunately
non-surgical means do not work very well, whereas open approach thoracic sympathectomy has not been popular due to its operational size and risks are high for a relatively “benign” condition. Now this surgery can be performed via a minimally invasive approach with minimal risk and successful rate is nearly 100%. There are usually two or three small wounds (2mm – 3mm) which are virtually painless.
Highlights from 2014 American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology in the Management of Coronary Heart Disease and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - for the Primary Care Physician
Cardiovascular diseases remain the
number one cause of death globally,
mainly due to Coronary Heart
Disease (CHD) and Stroke . An
estimated 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008, representing 30% of all global deaths.
The 2014 meetings of the American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology in the Management of Coronary Heart Disease and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention made updates.
Articular Cartilage Injuries in the Knee FAQs
Articular cartilage is the white
shiny covering over the ends of the
bones in a joint – it is the
substance which makes a joint a
joint, rather than two pieces of bone rubbing together. Articular cartilage injuries in the knee usually come from a twist or a fall. Articular cartilage defects can often be difficult to diagnose. Most commonly they cause vague pain. Other symptoms include swelling, and mechanical symptoms, such as popping, catching, giving way and even locking.
Achilles Tendinopathy FAQs
Achilles tendinopathy refers to
diseases of the Achilles tendon,
which often caused by degenerative
problems with combination of
intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This article will focus on non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Non-operative treatments are often preferred over conservative treatment which echoes the histological evidence of a degenerative disease process that has poor capacity for healing.
Haemorrhoids: Management update and a word of caution
There are three cushions present in
the normal anal canal, which
contribute 10 15-20% anal closure
pressure and are important for both
flatus and faecal continence. Haemorrhoids occur when these vascular cushions become congested and swollen, and when the condition becomes severe, they can prolapsed out of the anal canal. There are various treatments to Haemorrhoids, in which stapled haemorroidopexy is commonly used nowadays.
Diagnosis of Low Back Pain FAQs
Accurate diagnosis of back pain
isn’t always easy. The human
spine is very complex, so it can be
difficult to pinpoint the exact
cause of low back pain or other symptoms. Additionally, other factors, like depression, anxiety, or stress, can contribute to the symptoms of back pain. MRI scanning is safe and produces outstanding images of the spine, but, unfortunately, it doesn’t show ‘pain’, therefore, in more complex cases of back pain it can often be very helpful to inject X-ray dye and local anaesthetic into the back to identify, and in some cases, treat, the painful structures.
Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood
Scoliosis, being one of the most
prevalent back deformities
affecting growing children, with
potentially dire consequences,
stirs notable anxiety among patients and their families. There are three common types of scoliosis that affect children: idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. Three evidence-based treatment options include: Observation, Brace treatment, and surgery. Surgery for scoliosis has been made very safe by major advances in surgical techniques including surgical navigation and the use of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.
Breast Screening: Today
The average woman depending on her
racial ethnicity has a one in 6~9
chance of developing breast cancer
during her lifetime, based on a
life expectancy of 85 years. Nowadays, screening guidelines for breast cancer for an individual woman should take in account those with an average risk versus those with an increased risk because of familial or genetic predisposition. This is best achieved by using ‘triple assessment’, comprising imaging (usually mammography and ultrasound), clinical examination and image guided needle biopsy for histological examination where indicated.
Anterior Knee Pain – or pain at
the kneecap - is a very common
complaint. Most anterior knee pain
is from the joint between the
kneecap (patella) and the thigh bone (femur), known as the patellofemoral joint. This article looks at the assessment and treatment options of anterior knee pain.