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Investigation of a New Breast Symptom: A Guide for Family Physicians

The National Breast Cancer Centre
(NBCC) of Australia has developed
this guide to maximise the
effectiveness of investigation of
women who present to their family physician with a new breast symptom. The triple test approach is the recommended approach to maximise diagnostic accuracy in the investigation of breast changes, which includes the following components: medical history and clinical breast examination, imaging – mammography and/or ultrasound, non-excision biopsy – fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and/or core biopsy. Ultrasound and/or mammography should be conducted regularly from the age of 25.

Clavicle Fracture FAQs

Fractures of the collar bone
(clavicle) are common and seen in
all age groups. Most are due to a
fall onto the shoulder. Clavicle
fractures are divided into medial, mid-shaft and lateral fractures, in which mid-shaft are the most common (80%). Non-operative treatment has traditionally been the norm for treating mid-shaft, operative treatment is indicated for severely displaced, comminuted ('shattered') fractures, especially if associated with high-energy trauma. Almost all displaced lateral clavicle fractures should be operated, as they have a very high rate of non-union, and the non-unions are very difficult to treat. Medial clavicle fractures are not very common (2%).

Meniscal Regeneration By Meniscal Scaffold Implant Actifit Polyurethane Scaffold

Irreparable major meniscal tears
pose a very difficult problem in
the young and active patients who
sustain these kinds of injuries.
Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, the most commonly used treatment option for meniscus tear creates substantial number of patients suffering the effect of a lost meniscus cartilage which is knee pain and possible degenerative joint disease in long term. It is extremely important to preserve the meniscus as much as possible to avoid degenerative knee joint progression. This article will introduce the new minimally invasive surgery in Hong Kong to regenerate the meniscus with a degradable scaffold.

Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Foot & Ankle

There are numerous surgical
treatment methods to foot & ankle
illnesses, but many of them are
replaced by minimally invasive
surgery (MIS), for example, Percutaneous Distal Chevron Osteotomy to treat hallux valgus, Percutaneous Cheilectomy for hallux rigidus, distal metatarsal minimally invasive osteortomy for metatarsalgia, and endoscopic plantar fascia release to treat plantar fasciitis. There are many advantages of MIS over other methods, including minimal injury to adjacent tissue, reduction of post-operative complications & morbidity, enhancement of rehabilitation progress, cosmetically more acceptable scars. Arthroscopic and endoscopic applications have also become a standard procedure during diagnosis to give a far superior view, and treat some tendon conditions.

Sacroiliac Joint Pain FAQs

Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a
challenging condition affecting 15%
to 25% of patients with axial low
back pain, for which there is no
standard long-term treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that historical and physical examination findings and radiological imaging are insufficient to diagnose SI joint pain. The most commonly used method to diagnose the SI joint as a pain generator is with small volume local anaesthetic blocks. In the article, I will try to explain the diagnostic methods and available treatments in detail.

OA Knee FAQs

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most
common form of arthritis, is a
chronic, degenerative, joint
disease that affects mostly
middle-aged and older adults. It is characterised by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone. Several risk factors are associated with osteoarthritis, including: heredity, obesity, injury, and overuse. Knee osteoarthritis is not curable, but manageable. There are several specific treatments for osteoarthritis and they are chosen based on: your age, overall health, and medical history, extent of the condition, your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies, expectation for the course of the condition, and your opinion or preference.

Ankle Sprain FAQs

A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.

Articular Cartilage Injuries in the Knee FAQs

Articular cartilage is the white
shiny covering over the ends of the
bones in a joint – it is the
substance which makes a joint a
joint, rather than two pieces of bone rubbing together. Articular cartilage injuries in the knee usually come from a twist or a fall. Articular cartilage defects can often be difficult to diagnose. Most commonly they cause vague pain. Other symptoms include swelling, and mechanical symptoms, such as popping, catching, giving way and even locking.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Surgery Specialist Service

Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is
one of the major subspecialties of
surgery. It includes every part of
the gut from the oesophagus (food
pipe) that carries food from the mouth to the other end from which digested residue leaves the body. Common surgical procedures associated with GI Diseases include endoscopy, Cholecystectomy, Hernia operation, Haemorrhoid operation, Anti-reflux surgery, Major surgery for cancer, and Obesity surgery.

Achilles Tendinopathy FAQs

Achilles tendinopathy refers to
diseases of the Achilles tendon,
which often caused by degenerative
problems with combination of
intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This article will focus on non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Non-operative treatments are often preferred over conservative treatment which echoes the histological evidence of a degenerative disease process that has poor capacity for healing.