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Hallux Rigidus FAQs

Hallux Rigidus is describing the
degeneration of the joint at the
base of the big toe – called
metatarsophalangeal, or MTP joint.
It is the most common site of arthritis in the foot region. It is usually develops in adults at the ages between 30 and 60 years. No exact cause is agreed so far. There are numerous non-surgical treatments and surgical treatments, which is chosen based on the severity.

Meniscus FAQs: Tears, Repairs & Transplants

The menisci are two rubbery
crescent moon shaped flat pieces of
cartilage in each knee. The main
purpose of the meniscus is to act
like a washer – spreading load on the articular cartilage. Because the menisci are subjected to huge forces in everyday life, the menisci can tear simply standing up from sitting or climbing a step. Before arthroscopic surgery was developed in the 1970s, the only treatment for a meniscus tear was to remove the meniscus, which will eventually develop arthritis. Now, depend on the severity, a torn meniscus can be repaired, trimmed, or replaced.

Investigation of a New Breast Symptom: A Guide for Family Physicians

The National Breast Cancer Centre
(NBCC) of Australia has developed
this guide to maximise the
effectiveness of investigation of
women who present to their family physician with a new breast symptom. The triple test approach is the recommended approach to maximise diagnostic accuracy in the investigation of breast changes, which includes the following components: medical history and clinical breast examination, imaging – mammography and/or ultrasound, non-excision biopsy – fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and/or core biopsy. Ultrasound and/or mammography should be conducted regularly from the age of 25.

Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs

Acetabular dysplasia is a condition
in which the socket of the hip
joint is too shallow, or facing the
wrong way. If the acetabulum is too
shallow, it will result in too much pressure on the articular cartilage, with subsequent failure, and arthritis of the hip joint. If the acetabulum faces the wrong way it can cause jamming of the neck of the femur against edge of the acetabulum or it may allow the hip to partially dislocate. Depending on the severity of the dysplasia, patients can choose not to have treatment, hip arthroscopy (‘keyhole surgery’), pelvic osteotomy to correct the anatomy, or hip replacement.

Common Presentations in the Head & Neck

Lumps in the head and neck are
common and the cause is usually
benign. There are numerous causes
of head and neck masses.
Nevertheless these may be the presentation of either a malignancy or a chronic infection. If these abnormal structures persist for more than two weeks and there is doubt as to the cause, then the patient should be referred for specialist assessment.

Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery

Thoracotomy is one of the most
painful incisions of any surgical
procedure, and its associated
complications, such as pneumonia,
are well known. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) offers the benefits of a minimally invasive approach with reduced pain and complications. Nowadays, many illnesses can be treated via VATS, with nearly 100% success rate and lower recurrence rate. Additional to surgical use, VATS can also be used for biopsy, offering a clear examination of the pleural cavity and the lung lobes, etc.

My thyroid nodules! What shall I do?

The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.

ACL FAQs

ACL is a tough band of collagen
inside your knee joining your thigh
bone to your shin bone and is vital
to controls the complex gliding and
bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics. ACL can be torn if you twist your knee too far or change direction too quickly. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of acute ACL ruptures is missed. Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction is employed which has superior rotational stability.

Stomach Ulcers & Related Conditions FAQs

Indigestion is a common symptom for
city dwellers, and is usually
caused by either gastritis or
ulcers. Gastritis refers to
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and could lead to ulcers if left untreated. There are many causes for gastritis or ulcers: a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); certain aspirin or aspirin containing drugs; smoking; alcohol; excessive stomach acid; irregular eating habits; stress, etc. The best way to diagnose these conditions is by gastroscopy, which uses a thin flexible tube with a micro-camera attached to its tip, which displays images on a monitor in real time.  

Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Foot & Ankle

There are numerous surgical
treatment methods to foot & ankle
illnesses, but many of them are
replaced by minimally invasive
surgery (MIS), for example, Percutaneous Distal Chevron Osteotomy to treat hallux valgus, Percutaneous Cheilectomy for hallux rigidus, distal metatarsal minimally invasive osteortomy for metatarsalgia, and endoscopic plantar fascia release to treat plantar fasciitis. There are many advantages of MIS over other methods, including minimal injury to adjacent tissue, reduction of post-operative complications & morbidity, enhancement of rehabilitation progress, cosmetically more acceptable scars. Arthroscopic and endoscopic applications have also become a standard procedure during diagnosis to give a far superior view, and treat some tendon conditions.