Stroke Prevention and Management
Stroke is a leading cause of death
worldwide and the commonest cause
of permanent disability in adults.
The death and disability from
stroke is expected to increase in Hong Kong as the population rapidly ages in coming decades. This article highlights the need to reduce the local burden of stroke through the screening of individuals for stroke risk management and through ensuring a prompt and effective treatment response after stroke onset.
Interventional Pain Management
Pain is a multidimensional
experience. Chronic pain differs
from acute pain in that it lasts
for more than 3-6 months, and there
may not be obvious tissue injury leading to the pain. The pathway leading from stimulus to perception may be sensitised. There is often associated depression. Management of chronic pain therefore requires a holistic multi-disciplinary approach. In addition to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial support, physiotherapy and operative treatment, interventional techniques may benefit some patients by defining the pain generator and offers prolonged relief.
Applications of 3D Printing Technology in Lower Limb Deformity Correction Surgery
Congenital bow-legs or acquired
lower-limb deformity bring severe
impacts on one’s quality of life,
without clinical intervention, the
problem could worsen and hinder mobility significantly. The recent introduction of the application of 3D printing technology represents a major breakthrough in lower-limb deformity correction. Not only does it help in ensuring high levels of precision, it also substantially shortens hospital stay and recovery time.
A colonoscopy is an examination of
the inside lining of the large
bowel. Any abnormalities will be
visualised on the monitor screen.
Small polyps are usually removed at the same time, or biopsies of large polyps, tumours or inflammation will be taken for further evaluation. It is recommended to undergo colonoscopy at age of 50, or if you have symptoms like bleeding from the back passage, persistent abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, unusual diarrhoea, etc.
Ankle Sprain FAQs
A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.
Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood
Scoliosis, being one of the most
prevalent back deformities
affecting growing children, with
potentially dire consequences,
stirs notable anxiety among patients and their families. There are three common types of scoliosis that affect children: idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. Three evidence-based treatment options include: Observation, Brace treatment, and surgery. Surgery for scoliosis has been made very safe by major advances in surgical techniques including surgical navigation and the use of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.
My Thyroid has Nodules! What shall I do?
The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.
Oesophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy (OGD) FAQs
OGD is the examination of the
oesophagus, stomach and duodenum
a gastroscope, which has its own
camera lens and light source. It
is most often used to evaluate symptoms of indigestion such as upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or swallowing difficulty. It can also be used to look for the cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. OGD also allows your doctor to obtain biopsies from the lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract for laboratory testing. OGD can even be used to remove polyps (usually benign growths) or treat bleeding.
Hallux valgus is the medical term
for “bunions”, which refers to
the abnormal angulation of the big
toe towards the second toe. Severe
hallux valgus can lead to recurrent inflammation and pain over the bunion due to the repeated friction with shoe wear, difficulty in fitting shoes, second toe or other lesser toe deformities due to overcrowding, and calluses on the sole. There are more than a hundred hallux valgus operations described in the medical literature, but no one operation has proved itself to be the best. The exact operation performed depends on an individual’s particular combination of problems.
Clavicle Fracture FAQs
Fractures of the collar bone
(clavicle) are common and seen in
all age groups. Most are due to a
fall onto the shoulder. Clavicle
fractures are divided into medial, mid-shaft and lateral fractures, in which mid-shaft are the most common (80%). Non-operative treatment has traditionally been the norm for treating mid-shaft, operative treatment is indicated for severely displaced, comminuted ('shattered') fractures, especially if associated with high-energy trauma. Almost all displaced lateral clavicle fractures should be operated, as they have a very high rate of non-union, and the non-unions are very difficult to treat. Medial clavicle fractures are not very common (2%).