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Is it really frozen shoulder?

Shoulder pain is commonly labelled
as 'frozen shoulder'. Frozen
shoulder affects about two percent
of the general population. It
commonly affects people between the ages of 40 and 60 years, with no clear predisposition based on sex and arm dominance. Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition characterised by inflammation within the shoulder joint with progressive tightening and thickening joint capsule, giving rise to pain and reduced range of motion. The cardinal sign of frozen shoulder is loss of external rotation. The natural history of frozen shoulder typically goes through three phases: 'freezing' phase, 'frozen' phase, and 'thawing' phase.

Interventional Pain Management

Pain is a multidimensional
experience. Chronic pain differs
from acute pain in that it lasts
for more than 3-6 months, and there
may not be obvious tissue injury leading to the pain. The pathway leading from stimulus to perception may be sensitised. There is often associated depression. Management of chronic pain therefore requires a holistic multi-disciplinary approach. In addition to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial support, physiotherapy and operative treatment, interventional techniques may benefit some patients by defining the pain generator and offers prolonged relief.

Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery

Thoracotomy is one of the most
painful incisions of any surgical
procedure, and its associated
complications, such as pneumonia,
are well known. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) offers the benefits of a minimally invasive approach with reduced pain and complications. Nowadays, many illnesses can be treated via VATS, with nearly 100% success rate and lower recurrence rate. Additional to surgical use, VATS can also be used for biopsy, offering a clear examination of the pleural cavity and the lung lobes, etc.

ACL FAQs

ACL is a tough band of collagen
inside your knee joining your thigh
bone to your shin bone and is vital
to controls the complex gliding and
bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics. ACL can be torn if you twist your knee too far or change direction too quickly. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of acute ACL ruptures is missed. Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction is employed which has superior rotational stability.

My thyroid nodules! What shall I do?

The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.

Haemorrhoids: Management update and a word of caution

There are three cushions present in
the normal anal canal, which
contribute 10 15-20% anal closure
pressure and are important for both
flatus and faecal continence. Haemorrhoids occur when these vascular cushions become congested and swollen, and when the condition becomes severe, they can prolapsed out of the anal canal. There are various treatments to Haemorrhoids, in which stapled haemorroidopexy is commonly used nowadays.

Meniscus FAQs: Tears, Repairs & Transplants

The menisci are two rubbery
crescent moon shaped flat pieces of
cartilage in each knee. The main
purpose of the meniscus is to act
like a washer – spreading load on the articular cartilage. Because the menisci are subjected to huge forces in everyday life, the menisci can tear simply standing up from sitting or climbing a step. Before arthroscopic surgery was developed in the 1970s, the only treatment for a meniscus tear was to remove the meniscus, which will eventually develop arthritis. Now, depend on the severity, a torn meniscus can be repaired, trimmed, or replaced.

Treatment of Cervical Disc Hernia or Degeneration

Cervical disc hernia with spinal
cord or nerve root compression is a
common disease. It is common
younger population including those
without special risk factors. Surgical treatment has good outcomes if conservative treatment fails. The surgical risk is not high. There are newer technology to overcome the problem of the past in reducing the surgical risk and speeding recovery. First line treatment for most cervical disc problems is pain control and physical therapies. Second line treatment includes injections and radiofrequency neurotomy. If this approach fails, or if there is significant neurological deficit, surgical treatment is appropriate.

Stomach Ulcers & Related Conditions FAQs

Indigestion is a common symptom for
city dwellers, and is usually
caused by either gastritis or
ulcers. Gastritis refers to
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and could lead to ulcers if left untreated. There are many causes for gastritis or ulcers: a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); certain aspirin or aspirin containing drugs; smoking; alcohol; excessive stomach acid; irregular eating habits; stress, etc. The best way to diagnose these conditions is by gastroscopy, which uses a thin flexible tube with a micro-camera attached to its tip, which displays images on a monitor in real time.  

An “Instant Cure” for Obesity

Despite vigorous dieting and
exercise (or lack of it!), for
some, those extra kilos just
won’t go away. So is there an
instant cure for obesity? Well the simple answer is NO! Surgery is the closest thing there is to a cure, though not an instant one, for obesity. Surgical procedures for weight reduction can be broadly divided into two types. Occasionally, a combination of these procedures may be required.