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Investigation of a New Breast Symptom: A Guide for Family Physicians

The National Breast Cancer Centre
(NBCC) of Australia has developed
this guide to maximise the
effectiveness of investigation of
women who present to their family physician with a new breast symptom. The triple test approach is the recommended approach to maximise diagnostic accuracy in the investigation of breast changes, which includes the following components: medical history and clinical breast examination, imaging – mammography and/or ultrasound, non-excision biopsy – fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and/or core biopsy. Ultrasound and/or mammography should be conducted regularly from the age of 25.

Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery

Thoracotomy is one of the most
painful incisions of any surgical
procedure, and its associated
complications, such as pneumonia,
are well known. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) offers the benefits of a minimally invasive approach with reduced pain and complications. Nowadays, many illnesses can be treated via VATS, with nearly 100% success rate and lower recurrence rate. Additional to surgical use, VATS can also be used for biopsy, offering a clear examination of the pleural cavity and the lung lobes, etc.

My thyroid nodules! What shall I do?

The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.

Femoro - Acetabular Impingement (FAI) FAQs

Femoro-Acetabular Impingement (FAI)
is a condition in which the two
bones which make up the hip joint
pinch against each other, or
‘impinge’, at the extremes of motion, causing damage to the joint. The hip joint is a ball and socket, if the head of the femur is not round, or sits in the wrong position in relation to the rest of the femur, or the socket is either too deep or facing in the wrong direction, problems ensue. Innovative treatments are well established for various severity of FAI, including hip arthroscopy, Birmingham Hip Resurfacing.

Stroke Prevention and Management

Stroke is a leading cause of death
worldwide and the commonest cause
of permanent disability in adults.
The death and disability from
stroke is expected to increase in Hong Kong as the population rapidly ages in coming decades. This article highlights the need to reduce the local burden of stroke through the screening of individuals for stroke risk management and through ensuring a prompt and effective treatment response after stroke onset.

Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs

Acetabular dysplasia is a condition
in which the socket of the hip
joint is too shallow, or facing the
wrong way. If the acetabulum is too
shallow, it will result in too much pressure on the articular cartilage, with subsequent failure, and arthritis of the hip joint. If the acetabulum faces the wrong way it can cause jamming of the neck of the femur against edge of the acetabulum or it may allow the hip to partially dislocate. Depending on the severity of the dysplasia, patients can choose not to have treatment, hip arthroscopy (‘keyhole surgery’), pelvic osteotomy to correct the anatomy, or hip replacement.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Surgery Specialist Service

Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is
one of the major subspecialties of
surgery. It includes every part of
the gut from the oesophagus (food
pipe) that carries food from the mouth to the other end from which digested residue leaves the body. Common surgical procedures associated with GI Diseases include endoscopy, Cholecystectomy, Hernia operation, Haemorrhoid operation, Anti-reflux surgery, Major surgery for cancer, and Obesity surgery.

Breast Screening: Today

The average woman depending on her
racial ethnicity has a one in 6~9
chance of developing breast cancer
during her lifetime, based on a
life expectancy of 85 years. Nowadays, screening guidelines for breast cancer for an individual woman should take in account those with an average risk versus those with an increased risk because of familial or genetic predisposition. This is best achieved by using ‘triple assessment’, comprising imaging (usually mammography and ultrasound), clinical examination and image guided needle biopsy for histological examination where indicated.


ACL is a tough band of collagen
inside your knee joining your thigh
bone to your shin bone and is vital
to controls the complex gliding and
bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics. ACL can be torn if you twist your knee too far or change direction too quickly. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of acute ACL ruptures is missed. Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction is employed which has superior rotational stability.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis FAQs

Lumbar spinal stenosis most
commonly causes cramping, pain or
pins & needles in one’s legs; but
it can also cause: back pain; loss
of sensation in the legs; and sometimes problems with bladder or bowel function. Lumbar spine (low back) degeneration is the most common cause. Many people may ignore the early symptoms of spinal stenosis, believing that the pain and stiffness they experience are a normal part of aging. Most patients are recommended non-operative treatment for at least 6 weeks. Surgical treatment will be advised if the patient is not responding well.