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An “Instant Cure” for Obesity

Despite vigorous dieting and
exercise (or lack of it!), for
some, those extra kilos just
won’t go away. So is there an
instant cure for obesity? Well the simple answer is NO! Surgery is the closest thing there is to a cure, though not an instant one, for obesity. Surgical procedures for weight reduction can be broadly divided into two types. Occasionally, a combination of these procedures may be required.

Articular Cartilage Injuries in the Knee FAQs

Articular cartilage is the white
shiny covering over the ends of the
bones in a joint – it is the
substance which makes a joint a
joint, rather than two pieces of bone rubbing together. Articular cartilage injuries in the knee usually come from a twist or a fall. Articular cartilage defects can often be difficult to diagnose. Most commonly they cause vague pain. Other symptoms include swelling, and mechanical symptoms, such as popping, catching, giving way and even locking.

Rotator Cuff Tear FAQs

The rotator cuff is the joined-up
of tendon of four of the muscles
which move the shoulder, mainly to
control the stability and
coordinated movement of the shoulder joint. Tears can vary hugely in severity from small partial thickness tears which may not cause any problems to massive full thickness tears which are difficult to treat. The longer a tear has been present, the weaker the shoulder and the larger the tear, the poorer the eventual outcome after treatment. Small partial thickness tears can commence non-operative treatment, and proceed to operation if non-operative treatment fails.

The New Concept and the Latest Advances in Stroke Management

The old concept of
‘Cerebrovascular Accident” is
recently replaced by the new
concept of “Brain Attack”. Just
like heart attack, brain attack is also an acute cardiovascular disease. Both heart attack and brain attack are of similar aetiologies. Vascular Neurosurgeon also prefers Percutaneous Cerebral Intervention (Neuro-PCI), rather than iv rtPA. The Neuro-PCI has to be performed within 8 hours after symptom onset. This is thus the new Golden-8-hours Concept for brain attack.

My Thyroid has Nodules! What shall I do?

The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.

Lumbar Disc Replacement FAQs

The ‘intervertebral discs’ are
the shock absorbers between the
bones of the spine. Unfortunately,
they often degenerate – tearing,
bursting, or just wearing out. They can cause back or neck pain. The low back is known as the ‘lumbar’ region. The usual treatment is rest and painkillers, followed by core muscle (Pilates) exercises. If pain is a problem despite this treatment, one option is to have an operation. Fusion operation is the conventional approach. In a fusion, some or all of the disc is removed and replaced with bone, which joins to the bones above and below the disc together. It is the gold standard for comparing all other operations, including the new operation of lumbar disc replacement.

Patellofemoral Pain

Anterior Knee Pain – or pain at
the kneecap - is a very common
complaint. Most anterior knee pain
is from the joint between the
kneecap (patella) and the thigh bone (femur), known as the patellofemoral joint. This article looks at the assessment and treatment options of anterior knee pain.

Colonoscopy FAQs

A colonoscopy is an examination of
the inside lining of the large
bowel. Any abnormalities will be
visualised on the monitor screen.
Small polyps are usually removed at the same time, or biopsies of large polyps, tumours or inflammation will be taken for further evaluation. It is recommended to undergo colonoscopy at age of 50, or if you have symptoms like bleeding from the back passage, persistent abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, unusual diarrhoea, etc.

Is it really frozen shoulder?

Shoulder pain is commonly labelled
as 'frozen shoulder'. Frozen
shoulder affects about two percent
of the general population. It
commonly affects people between the ages of 40 and 60 years, with no clear predisposition based on sex and arm dominance. Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition characterised by inflammation within the shoulder joint with progressive tightening and thickening joint capsule, giving rise to pain and reduced range of motion. The cardinal sign of frozen shoulder is loss of external rotation. The natural history of frozen shoulder typically goes through three phases: 'freezing' phase, 'frozen' phase, and 'thawing' phase.

Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs

Acetabular dysplasia is a condition
in which the socket of the hip
joint is too shallow, or facing the
wrong way. If the acetabulum is too
shallow, it will result in too much pressure on the articular cartilage, with subsequent failure, and arthritis of the hip joint. If the acetabulum faces the wrong way it can cause jamming of the neck of the femur against edge of the acetabulum or it may allow the hip to partially dislocate. Depending on the severity of the dysplasia, patients can choose not to have treatment, hip arthroscopy (‘keyhole surgery’), pelvic osteotomy to correct the anatomy, or hip replacement.