ACL is a tough band of collagen
inside your knee joining your thigh
bone to your shin bone and is vital
to controls the complex gliding and
bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics. ACL can be torn if you twist your knee too far or change direction too quickly. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of acute ACL ruptures is missed. Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction is employed which has superior rotational stability.
Is it really frozen shoulder?
Shoulder pain is commonly labelled
as 'frozen shoulder'. Frozen
shoulder affects about two percent
of the general population. It
commonly affects people between the ages of 40 and 60 years, with no clear predisposition based on sex and arm dominance. Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition characterised by inflammation within the shoulder joint with progressive tightening and thickening joint capsule, giving rise to pain and reduced range of motion. The cardinal sign of frozen shoulder is loss of external rotation. The natural history of frozen shoulder typically goes through three phases: 'freezing' phase, 'frozen' phase, and 'thawing' phase.
Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood
Scoliosis, being one of the most
prevalent back deformities
affecting growing children, with
potentially dire consequences,
stirs notable anxiety among patients and their families. There are three common types of scoliosis that affect children: idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. Three evidence-based treatment options include: Observation, Brace treatment, and surgery. Surgery for scoliosis has been made very safe by major advances in surgical techniques including surgical navigation and the use of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.
Common Presentations in the Head & Neck
Lumps in the head and neck are
common and the cause is usually
benign. There are numerous causes
of head and neck masses.
Nevertheless these may be the presentation of either a malignancy or a chronic infection. If these abnormal structures persist for more than two weeks and there is doubt as to the cause, then the patient should be referred for specialist assessment.
Stomach Ulcers & Related Conditions FAQs
Indigestion is a common symptom for
city dwellers, and is usually
caused by either gastritis or
ulcers. Gastritis refers to
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and could lead to ulcers if left untreated. There are many causes for gastritis or ulcers: a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); certain aspirin or aspirin containing drugs; smoking; alcohol; excessive stomach acid; irregular eating habits; stress, etc. The best way to diagnose these conditions is by gastroscopy, which uses a thin flexible tube with a micro-camera attached to its tip, which displays images on a monitor in real time.
Breast Screening: Today
The average woman depending on her
racial ethnicity has a one in 6~9
chance of developing breast cancer
during her lifetime, based on a
life expectancy of 85 years. Nowadays, screening guidelines for breast cancer for an individual woman should take in account those with an average risk versus those with an increased risk because of familial or genetic predisposition. This is best achieved by using ‘triple assessment’, comprising imaging (usually mammography and ultrasound), clinical examination and image guided needle biopsy for histological examination where indicated.
Clavicle Fracture FAQs
Fractures of the collar bone
(clavicle) are common and seen in
all age groups. Most are due to a
fall onto the shoulder. Clavicle
fractures are divided into medial, mid-shaft and lateral fractures, in which mid-shaft are the most common (80%). Non-operative treatment has traditionally been the norm for treating mid-shaft, operative treatment is indicated for severely displaced, comminuted ('shattered') fractures, especially if associated with high-energy trauma. Almost all displaced lateral clavicle fractures should be operated, as they have a very high rate of non-union, and the non-unions are very difficult to treat. Medial clavicle fractures are not very common (2%).
Applications of 3D Printing Technology in Lower Limb Deformity Correction Surgery
Congenital bow-legs or acquired
lower-limb deformity bring severe
impacts on one’s quality of life,
without clinical intervention, the
problem could worsen and hinder mobility significantly. The recent introduction of the application of 3D printing technology represents a major breakthrough in lower-limb deformity correction. Not only does it help in ensuring high levels of precision, it also substantially shortens hospital stay and recovery time.
Ankle Sprain FAQs
A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.
Haemorrhoids: Management update and a word of caution
There are three cushions present in
the normal anal canal, which
contribute 10 15-20% anal closure
pressure and are important for both
flatus and faecal continence. Haemorrhoids occur when these vascular cushions become congested and swollen, and when the condition becomes severe, they can prolapsed out of the anal canal. There are various treatments to Haemorrhoids, in which stapled haemorroidopexy is commonly used nowadays.