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Diagnosis of Low Back Pain FAQs

Accurate diagnosis of back pain
isn’t always easy. The human
spine is very complex, so it can be
difficult to pinpoint the exact
cause of low back pain or other symptoms. Additionally, other factors, like depression, anxiety, or stress, can contribute to the symptoms of back pain. MRI scanning is safe and produces outstanding images of the spine, but, unfortunately, it doesn’t show ‘pain’, therefore, in more complex cases of back pain it can often be very helpful to inject X-ray dye and local anaesthetic into the back to identify, and in some cases, treat, the painful structures.

Articular Cartilage Injuries in the Knee FAQs

Articular cartilage is the white
shiny covering over the ends of the
bones in a joint – it is the
substance which makes a joint a
joint, rather than two pieces of bone rubbing together. Articular cartilage injuries in the knee usually come from a twist or a fall. Articular cartilage defects can often be difficult to diagnose. Most commonly they cause vague pain. Other symptoms include swelling, and mechanical symptoms, such as popping, catching, giving way and even locking.

Lumbar Disc Replacement FAQs

The ‘intervertebral discs’ are
the shock absorbers between the
bones of the spine. Unfortunately,
they often degenerate – tearing,
bursting, or just wearing out. They can cause back or neck pain. The low back is known as the ‘lumbar’ region. The usual treatment is rest and painkillers, followed by core muscle (Pilates) exercises. If pain is a problem despite this treatment, one option is to have an operation. Fusion operation is the conventional approach. In a fusion, some or all of the disc is removed and replaced with bone, which joins to the bones above and below the disc together. It is the gold standard for comparing all other operations, including the new operation of lumbar disc replacement.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Surgery Specialist Service

Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is
one of the major subspecialties of
surgery. It includes every part of
the gut from the oesophagus (food
pipe) that carries food from the mouth to the other end from which digested residue leaves the body. Common surgical procedures associated with GI Diseases include endoscopy, Cholecystectomy, Hernia operation, Haemorrhoid operation, Anti-reflux surgery, Major surgery for cancer, and Obesity surgery.

Stroke Prevention and Management

Stroke is a leading cause of death
worldwide and the commonest cause
of permanent disability in adults.
The death and disability from
stroke is expected to increase in Hong Kong as the population rapidly ages in coming decades. This article highlights the need to reduce the local burden of stroke through the screening of individuals for stroke risk management and through ensuring a prompt and effective treatment response after stroke onset.

My Thyroid has Nodules! What shall I do?

The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.

Highlights from 2014 American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology in the Management of Coronary Heart Disease and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - for the Primary Care Physician

Cardiovascular diseases remain the
number one cause of death globally,
mainly due to Coronary Heart
Disease (CHD) and Stroke [1]. An
estimated 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008, representing 30% of all global deaths. The 2014 meetings of the American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology in the Management of Coronary Heart Disease and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention made updates.

ACL FAQs

ACL is a tough band of collagen
inside your knee joining your thigh
bone to your shin bone and is vital
to controls the complex gliding and
bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics. ACL can be torn if you twist your knee too far or change direction too quickly. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of acute ACL ruptures is missed. Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction is employed which has superior rotational stability.

OA Knee FAQs

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most
common form of arthritis, is a
chronic, degenerative, joint
disease that affects mostly
middle-aged and older adults. It is characterised by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone. Several risk factors are associated with osteoarthritis, including: heredity, obesity, injury, and overuse. Knee osteoarthritis is not curable, but manageable. There are several specific treatments for osteoarthritis and they are chosen based on: your age, overall health, and medical history, extent of the condition, your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies, expectation for the course of the condition, and your opinion or preference.

Meniscus FAQs: Tears, Repairs & Transplants

The menisci are two rubbery
crescent moon shaped flat pieces of
cartilage in each knee. The main
purpose of the meniscus is to act
like a washer – spreading load on the articular cartilage. Because the menisci are subjected to huge forces in everyday life, the menisci can tear simply standing up from sitting or climbing a step. Before arthroscopic surgery was developed in the 1970s, the only treatment for a meniscus tear was to remove the meniscus, which will eventually develop arthritis. Now, depend on the severity, a torn meniscus can be repaired, trimmed, or replaced.