A colonoscopy is an examination of
the inside lining of the large
bowel. Any abnormalities will be
visualised on the monitor screen.
Small polyps are usually removed at the same time, or biopsies of large polyps, tumours or inflammation will be taken for further evaluation. It is recommended to undergo colonoscopy at age of 50, or if you have symptoms like bleeding from the back passage, persistent abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, unusual diarrhoea, etc.
Meniscus FAQs: Tears, Repairs & Transplants
The menisci are two rubbery
crescent moon shaped flat pieces of
cartilage in each knee. The main
purpose of the meniscus is to act
like a washer – spreading load on the articular cartilage. Because the menisci are subjected to huge forces in everyday life, the menisci can tear simply standing up from sitting or climbing a step. Before arthroscopic surgery was developed in the 1970s, the only treatment for a meniscus tear was to remove the meniscus, which will eventually develop arthritis. Now, depend on the severity, a torn meniscus can be repaired, trimmed, or replaced.
Ankle Sprain FAQs
A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.
Clavicle Fracture FAQs
Fractures of the collar bone
(clavicle) are common and seen in
all age groups. Most are due to a
fall onto the shoulder. Clavicle
fractures are divided into medial, mid-shaft and lateral fractures, in which mid-shaft are the most common (80%). Non-operative treatment has traditionally been the norm for treating mid-shaft, operative treatment is indicated for severely displaced, comminuted ('shattered') fractures, especially if associated with high-energy trauma. Almost all displaced lateral clavicle fractures should be operated, as they have a very high rate of non-union, and the non-unions are very difficult to treat. Medial clavicle fractures are not very common (2%).
OA Knee FAQs
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most
common form of arthritis, is a
chronic, degenerative, joint
disease that affects mostly
middle-aged and older adults. It is characterised by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone. Several risk factors are associated with osteoarthritis, including: heredity, obesity, injury, and overuse. Knee osteoarthritis is not curable, but manageable. There are several specific treatments for osteoarthritis and they are chosen based on: your age, overall health, and medical history, extent of the condition, your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies, expectation for the course of the condition, and your opinion or preference.
Sacroiliac Joint Pain FAQs
Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a
challenging condition affecting 15%
to 25% of patients with axial low
back pain, for which there is no
standard long-term treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that historical and physical examination findings and radiological imaging are insufficient to diagnose SI joint pain. The most commonly used method to diagnose the SI joint as a pain generator is with small volume local anaesthetic blocks. In the article, I will try to explain the diagnostic methods and available treatments in detail.
Hallux valgus is the medical term
for “bunions”, which refers to
the abnormal angulation of the big
toe towards the second toe. Severe
hallux valgus can lead to recurrent inflammation and pain over the bunion due to the repeated friction with shoe wear, difficulty in fitting shoes, second toe or other lesser toe deformities due to overcrowding, and calluses on the sole. There are more than a hundred hallux valgus operations described in the medical literature, but no one operation has proved itself to be the best. The exact operation performed depends on an individual’s particular combination of problems.
The New Concept and the Latest Advances in Stroke Management
The old concept of
‘Cerebrovascular Accident” is
recently replaced by the new
concept of “Brain Attack”. Just
like heart attack, brain attack is also an acute cardiovascular disease. Both heart attack and brain attack are of similar aetiologies. Vascular Neurosurgeon also prefers Percutaneous Cerebral Intervention (Neuro-PCI), rather than iv rtPA. The Neuro-PCI has to be performed within 8 hours after symptom onset. This is thus the new Golden-8-hours Concept for brain attack.
My thyroid nodules! What shall I do?
The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.
Interventional Pain Management
Pain is a multidimensional
experience. Chronic pain differs
from acute pain in that it lasts
for more than 3-6 months, and there
may not be obvious tissue injury leading to the pain. The pathway leading from stimulus to perception may be sensitised. There is often associated depression. Management of chronic pain therefore requires a holistic multi-disciplinary approach. In addition to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial support, physiotherapy and operative treatment, interventional techniques may benefit some patients by defining the pain generator and offers prolonged relief.