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Investigation of a New Breast Symptom: A Guide for Family Physicians

The National Breast Cancer Centre
(NBCC) of Australia has developed
this guide to maximise the
effectiveness of investigation of
women who present to their family physician with a new breast symptom. The triple test approach is the recommended approach to maximise diagnostic accuracy in the investigation of breast changes, which includes the following components: medical history and clinical breast examination, imaging – mammography and/or ultrasound, non-excision biopsy – fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and/or core biopsy. Ultrasound and/or mammography should be conducted regularly from the age of 25.

'Slipped Disc' FAQs

‘Slipped disc’ is a colloquial
term for a burst (or prolapse or
herniation) of the intervertebral
disc. This is much like a jam
doughnut bursting and the jam coming out. From early adulthood, the annulus fibrosus becomes weaker. As a result, the intervertebral disc is more vulnerable to the pressure of the body’s weight. If the annulus fibrosus tears, the jelly like nucleus pulposus leaks out to become a herniated disc.

Femoro - Acetabular Impingement (FAI) FAQs

Femoro-Acetabular Impingement (FAI)
is a condition in which the two
bones which make up the hip joint
pinch against each other, or
‘impinge’, at the extremes of motion, causing damage to the joint. The hip joint is a ball and socket, if the head of the femur is not round, or sits in the wrong position in relation to the rest of the femur, or the socket is either too deep or facing in the wrong direction, problems ensue. Innovative treatments are well established for various severity of FAI, including hip arthroscopy, Birmingham Hip Resurfacing.

Applications of 3D Printing Technology in Lower Limb Deformity Correction Surgery

Congenital bow-legs or acquired
lower-limb deformity bring severe
impacts on one’s quality of life,
without clinical intervention, the
problem could worsen and hinder mobility significantly. The recent introduction of the application of 3D printing technology represents a major breakthrough in lower-limb deformity correction. Not only does it help in ensuring high levels of precision, it also substantially shortens hospital stay and recovery time.

The New Concept and the Latest Advances in Stroke Management

The old concept of
‘Cerebrovascular Accident” is
recently replaced by the new
concept of “Brain Attack”. Just
like heart attack, brain attack is also an acute cardiovascular disease. Both heart attack and brain attack are of similar aetiologies. Vascular Neurosurgeon also prefers Percutaneous Cerebral Intervention (Neuro-PCI), rather than iv rtPA. The Neuro-PCI has to be performed within 8 hours after symptom onset. This is thus the new Golden-8-hours Concept for brain attack.

Sacroiliac Joint Pain FAQs

Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a
challenging condition affecting 15%
to 25% of patients with axial low
back pain, for which there is no
standard long-term treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that historical and physical examination findings and radiological imaging are insufficient to diagnose SI joint pain. The most commonly used method to diagnose the SI joint as a pain generator is with small volume local anaesthetic blocks. In the article, I will try to explain the diagnostic methods and available treatments in detail.

Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood

Scoliosis, being one of the most
prevalent back deformities
affecting growing children, with
potentially dire consequences,
stirs notable anxiety among patients and their families. There are three common types of scoliosis that affect children: idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. Three evidence-based treatment options include: Observation, Brace treatment, and surgery. Surgery for scoliosis has been made very safe by major advances in surgical techniques including surgical navigation and the use of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.

Choosing among different types of hip replacement FAQs

Arthritis is one of the most common
causes of pain in the hip and
various treatments are available
for patients at difference stages.
Patients who experience light pain are suggested to do physiotherapy. When the pain gets worse, injections might be required. If the arthritis is not too advanced, therapeutic arthroscopy (keyhole surgery) could be performed. Among the above treatments, hip replacement is recommended to active patients who want to get rid of endless pain and resume their daily activities. However, most patients do not know the differences on hip replacement types, this article will provide a detail comparison on three major modern bearing combinations for patients to understand which hip replacement is suitable to them.

Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Foot & Ankle

There are numerous surgical
treatment methods to foot & ankle
illnesses, but many of them are
replaced by minimally invasive
surgery (MIS), for example, Percutaneous Distal Chevron Osteotomy to treat hallux valgus, Percutaneous Cheilectomy for hallux rigidus, distal metatarsal minimally invasive osteortomy for metatarsalgia, and endoscopic plantar fascia release to treat plantar fasciitis. There are many advantages of MIS over other methods, including minimal injury to adjacent tissue, reduction of post-operative complications & morbidity, enhancement of rehabilitation progress, cosmetically more acceptable scars. Arthroscopic and endoscopic applications have also become a standard procedure during diagnosis to give a far superior view, and treat some tendon conditions.

Common Presentations in the Head & Neck

Lumps in the head and neck are
common and the cause is usually
benign. There are numerous causes
of head and neck masses.
Nevertheless these may be the presentation of either a malignancy or a chronic infection. If these abnormal structures persist for more than two weeks and there is doubt as to the cause, then the patient should be referred for specialist assessment.