Common Presentations in the Head & Neck
Lumps in the head and neck are
common and the cause is usually
benign. There are numerous causes
of head and neck masses.
Nevertheless these may be the presentation of either a malignancy or a chronic infection. If these abnormal structures persist for more than two weeks and there is doubt as to the cause, then the patient should be referred for specialist assessment.
Stomach Ulcers & Related Conditions FAQs
Indigestion is a common symptom for
city dwellers, and is usually
caused by either gastritis or
ulcers. Gastritis refers to
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and could lead to ulcers if left untreated. There are many causes for gastritis or ulcers: a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); certain aspirin or aspirin containing drugs; smoking; alcohol; excessive stomach acid; irregular eating habits; stress, etc. The best way to diagnose these conditions is by gastroscopy, which uses a thin flexible tube with a micro-camera attached to its tip, which displays images on a monitor in real time.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis FAQs
Lumbar spinal stenosis most
commonly causes cramping, pain or
pins & needles in one’s legs; but
it can also cause: back pain; loss
of sensation in the legs; and sometimes problems with bladder or bowel function. Lumbar spine (low back) degeneration is the most common cause. Many people may ignore the early symptoms of spinal stenosis, believing that the pain and stiffness they experience are a normal part of aging. Most patients are recommended non-operative treatment for at least 6 weeks. Surgical treatment will be advised if the patient is not responding well.
Femoro - Acetabular Impingement (FAI) FAQs
Femoro-Acetabular Impingement (FAI)
is a condition in which the two
bones which make up the hip joint
pinch against each other, or
‘impinge’, at the extremes of motion, causing damage to the joint. The hip joint is a ball and socket, if the head of the femur is not round, or sits in the wrong position in relation to the rest of the femur, or the socket is either too deep or facing in the wrong direction, problems ensue. Innovative treatments are well established for various severity of FAI, including hip arthroscopy, Birmingham Hip Resurfacing.
Investigation of a New Breast Symptom: A Guide for Family Physicians
The National Breast Cancer Centre
(NBCC) of Australia has developed
this guide to maximise the
effectiveness of investigation of
women who present to their family physician with a new breast symptom. The triple test approach is the recommended approach to maximise diagnostic accuracy in the investigation of breast changes, which includes the following components: medical history and clinical breast examination, imaging – mammography and/or ultrasound, non-excision biopsy – fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and/or core biopsy. Ultrasound and/or mammography should be conducted regularly from the age of 25.
Interventional Pain Management
Pain is a multidimensional
experience. Chronic pain differs
from acute pain in that it lasts
for more than 3-6 months, and there
may not be obvious tissue injury leading to the pain. The pathway leading from stimulus to perception may be sensitised. There is often associated depression. Management of chronic pain therefore requires a holistic multi-disciplinary approach. In addition to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial support, physiotherapy and operative treatment, interventional techniques may benefit some patients by defining the pain generator and offers prolonged relief.
Meniscus FAQs: Tears, Repairs & Transplants
The menisci are two rubbery
crescent moon shaped flat pieces of
cartilage in each knee. The main
purpose of the meniscus is to act
like a washer – spreading load on the articular cartilage. Because the menisci are subjected to huge forces in everyday life, the menisci can tear simply standing up from sitting or climbing a step. Before arthroscopic surgery was developed in the 1970s, the only treatment for a meniscus tear was to remove the meniscus, which will eventually develop arthritis. Now, depend on the severity, a torn meniscus can be repaired, trimmed, or replaced.
The New Concept and the Latest Advances in Stroke Management
The old concept of
‘Cerebrovascular Accident” is
recently replaced by the new
concept of “Brain Attack”. Just
like heart attack, brain attack is also an acute cardiovascular disease. Both heart attack and brain attack are of similar aetiologies. Vascular Neurosurgeon also prefers Percutaneous Cerebral Intervention (Neuro-PCI), rather than iv rtPA. The Neuro-PCI has to be performed within 8 hours after symptom onset. This is thus the new Golden-8-hours Concept for brain attack.
An “Instant Cure” for Obesity
Despite vigorous dieting and
exercise (or lack of it!), for
some, those extra kilos just
won’t go away. So is there an
instant cure for obesity? Well the simple answer is NO! Surgery is the closest thing there is to a cure, though not an instant one, for obesity. Surgical procedures for weight reduction can be broadly divided into two types. Occasionally, a combination of these procedures may be required.
Hallux valgus is the medical term
for “bunions”, which refers to
the abnormal angulation of the big
toe towards the second toe. Severe
hallux valgus can lead to recurrent inflammation and pain over the bunion due to the repeated friction with shoe wear, difficulty in fitting shoes, second toe or other lesser toe deformities due to overcrowding, and calluses on the sole. There are more than a hundred hallux valgus operations described in the medical literature, but no one operation has proved itself to be the best. The exact operation performed depends on an individual’s particular combination of problems.