Clavicle Fracture FAQs
Fractures of the collar bone
(clavicle) are common and seen in
all age groups. Most are due to a
fall onto the shoulder. Clavicle
fractures are divided into medial, mid-shaft and lateral fractures, in which mid-shaft are the most common (80%). Non-operative treatment has traditionally been the norm for treating mid-shaft, operative treatment is indicated for severely displaced, comminuted ('shattered') fractures, especially if associated with high-energy trauma. Almost all displaced lateral clavicle fractures should be operated, as they have a very high rate of non-union, and the non-unions are very difficult to treat. Medial clavicle fractures are not very common (2%).
Articular Cartilage Injuries in the Knee FAQs
Articular cartilage is the white
shiny covering over the ends of the
bones in a joint – it is the
substance which makes a joint a
joint, rather than two pieces of bone rubbing together. Articular cartilage injuries in the knee usually come from a twist or a fall. Articular cartilage defects can often be difficult to diagnose. Most commonly they cause vague pain. Other symptoms include swelling, and mechanical symptoms, such as popping, catching, giving way and even locking.
Diagnosis of Low Back Pain FAQs
Accurate diagnosis of back pain
isn’t always easy. The human
spine is very complex, so it can be
difficult to pinpoint the exact
cause of low back pain or other symptoms. Additionally, other factors, like depression, anxiety, or stress, can contribute to the symptoms of back pain. MRI scanning is safe and produces outstanding images of the spine, but, unfortunately, it doesn’t show ‘pain’, therefore, in more complex cases of back pain it can often be very helpful to inject X-ray dye and local anaesthetic into the back to identify, and in some cases, treat, the painful structures.
Hallux Rigidus FAQs
Hallux Rigidus is describing the
degeneration of the joint at the
base of the big toe – called
metatarsophalangeal, or MTP joint.
It is the most common site of arthritis in the foot region. It is usually develops in adults at the ages between 30 and 60 years. No exact cause is agreed so far. There are numerous non-surgical treatments and surgical treatments, which is chosen based on the severity.
Chronic Pain after Ankle Injury
Ankle injuries are one of the most
common sports injuries, accounting
for 10-20% of injuries in different
sports. Ankle injuries can be
divided into: soft tissue (ligamentous/joint capsule) injury, bone injury (fracture/contusion), or combined. Soft tissue injuries (ankle sprain) are far more common than fractures (80% vs. 10%). Most ankle sprains heal without persistent pain or chronic disability after conservative management (RICE and physiotherapy), but 20-40% of patients have persistent problems. Two common sources of chronic pain and disability are ankle impingement and persistent ankle instability. Both ankle impingement and persistent ankle instability are usually treated non-surgically first, if the symptoms are not relieved after a period of time, patients can undergo ankle arthroscopy, a well established procedure which has fewer complications and quicker recovery.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis FAQs
Lumbar spinal stenosis most
commonly causes cramping, pain or
pins & needles in one’s legs; but
it can also cause: back pain; loss
of sensation in the legs; and sometimes problems with bladder or bowel function. Lumbar spine (low back) degeneration is the most common cause. Many people may ignore the early symptoms of spinal stenosis, believing that the pain and stiffness they experience are a normal part of aging. Most patients are recommended non-operative treatment for at least 6 weeks. Surgical treatment will be advised if the patient is not responding well.
Lumbar Disc Replacement FAQs
The ‘intervertebral discs’ are
the shock absorbers between the
bones of the spine. Unfortunately,
they often degenerate – tearing,
bursting, or just wearing out. They can cause back or neck pain.
The low back is known as the ‘lumbar’ region.
The usual treatment is rest and painkillers, followed by core muscle (Pilates) exercises. If pain is a problem despite this treatment, one option is to have an operation.
Fusion operation is the conventional approach. In a fusion, some or all of the disc is removed and replaced with bone, which joins to the bones above and below the disc together.
It is the gold standard for comparing all other operations, including the new operation of lumbar disc replacement.
Highlights from 2014 American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology in the Management of Coronary Heart Disease and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - for the Primary Care Physician
Cardiovascular diseases remain the
number one cause of death globally,
mainly due to Coronary Heart
Disease (CHD) and Stroke . An
estimated 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008, representing 30% of all global deaths.
The 2014 meetings of the American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology in the Management of Coronary Heart Disease and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention made updates.
Oesophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy (OGD) FAQs
OGD is the examination of the
oesophagus, stomach and duodenum
a gastroscope, which has its own
camera lens and light source. It
is most often used to evaluate symptoms of indigestion such as upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or swallowing difficulty. It can also be used to look for the cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. OGD also allows your doctor to obtain biopsies from the lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract for laboratory testing. OGD can even be used to remove polyps (usually benign growths) or treat bleeding.
Rotator Cuff Tear FAQs
The rotator cuff is the joined-up
of tendon of four of the muscles
which move the shoulder, mainly to
control the stability and
coordinated movement of the shoulder joint. Tears can vary hugely in severity from small partial thickness tears which may not cause any problems to massive full thickness tears which are difficult to treat. The longer a tear has been present, the weaker the shoulder and the larger the tear, the poorer the eventual outcome after treatment. Small partial thickness tears can commence non-operative treatment, and proceed to operation if non-operative treatment fails.