Gastrointestinal (GI) Surgery Specialist Service
Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is
one of the major subspecialties of
surgery. It includes every part of
the gut from the oesophagus (food
pipe) that carries food from the mouth to the other end from which digested residue leaves the body. Common surgical procedures associated with GI Diseases include endoscopy, Cholecystectomy, Hernia operation, Haemorrhoid operation, Anti-reflux surgery, Major surgery for cancer, and Obesity surgery.
Breast Screening: Today
The average woman depending on her
racial ethnicity has a one in 6~9
chance of developing breast cancer
during her lifetime, based on a
life expectancy of 85 years. Nowadays, screening guidelines for breast cancer for an individual woman should take in account those with an average risk versus those with an increased risk because of familial or genetic predisposition. This is best achieved by using ‘triple assessment’, comprising imaging (usually mammography and ultrasound), clinical examination and image guided needle biopsy for histological examination where indicated.
Stroke Prevention and Management
Stroke is a leading cause of death
worldwide and the commonest cause
of permanent disability in adults.
The death and disability from
stroke is expected to increase in Hong Kong as the population rapidly ages in coming decades. This article highlights the need to reduce the local burden of stroke through the screening of individuals for stroke risk management and through ensuring a prompt and effective treatment response after stroke onset.
Excessive sweating in the palms
(palmar hyperhidrosis) is a common
condition affecting about 1 to 4 %
of the population. Unfortunately
non-surgical means do not work very well, whereas open approach thoracic sympathectomy has not been popular due to its operational size and risks are high for a relatively “benign” condition. Now this surgery can be performed via a minimally invasive approach with minimal risk and successful rate is nearly 100%. There are usually two or three small wounds (2mm – 3mm) which are virtually painless.
Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood
Scoliosis, being one of the most
prevalent back deformities
affecting growing children, with
potentially dire consequences,
stirs notable anxiety among patients and their families. There are three common types of scoliosis that affect children: idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. Three evidence-based treatment options include: Observation, Brace treatment, and surgery. Surgery for scoliosis has been made very safe by major advances in surgical techniques including surgical navigation and the use of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.
My thyroid nodules! What shall I do?
The prevalence of thyroid nodules
in any population will depend on
various factors which include…
sex, age, diet, iodine deficiency
and also to the likelihood of radiation exposure be it environmental or therapeutic. Thyroid nodules are more common in females and the prevalence increases with age such that 5% of the population aged 60 years will have a thyroid nodule. There is also a direct dose response relation of thyroid nodularity to radiation exposure to the head and neck region.
Is it really frozen shoulder?
Shoulder pain is commonly labelled
as 'frozen shoulder'. Frozen
shoulder affects about two percent
of the general population. It
commonly affects people between the ages of 40 and 60 years, with no clear predisposition based on sex and arm dominance. Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition characterised by inflammation within the shoulder joint with progressive tightening and thickening joint capsule, giving rise to pain and reduced range of motion. The cardinal sign of frozen shoulder is loss of external rotation. The natural history of frozen shoulder typically goes through three phases: 'freezing' phase, 'frozen' phase, and 'thawing' phase.
Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs
Acetabular dysplasia is a condition
in which the socket of the hip
joint is too shallow, or facing the
wrong way. If the acetabulum is too
shallow, it will result in too much pressure on the articular cartilage, with subsequent failure, and arthritis of the hip joint. If the acetabulum faces the wrong way it can cause jamming of the neck of the femur against edge of the acetabulum or it may allow the hip to partially dislocate. Depending on the severity of the dysplasia, patients can choose not to have treatment, hip arthroscopy (‘keyhole surgery’), pelvic osteotomy to correct the anatomy, or hip replacement.
Haemorrhoids: Management update and a word of caution
There are three cushions present in
the normal anal canal, which
contribute 10 15-20% anal closure
pressure and are important for both
flatus and faecal continence. Haemorrhoids occur when these vascular cushions become congested and swollen, and when the condition becomes severe, they can prolapsed out of the anal canal. There are various treatments to Haemorrhoids, in which stapled haemorroidopexy is commonly used nowadays.
Rotator Cuff Tear FAQs
The rotator cuff is the joined-up
of tendon of four of the muscles
which move the shoulder, mainly to
control the stability and
coordinated movement of the shoulder joint. Tears can vary hugely in severity from small partial thickness tears which may not cause any problems to massive full thickness tears which are difficult to treat. The longer a tear has been present, the weaker the shoulder and the larger the tear, the poorer the eventual outcome after treatment. Small partial thickness tears can commence non-operative treatment, and proceed to operation if non-operative treatment fails.