Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs
Acetabular dysplasia is a condition
in which the socket of the hip
joint is too shallow, or facing the
wrong way. If the acetabulum is too
shallow, it will result in too much pressure on the articular cartilage, with subsequent failure, and arthritis of the hip joint. If the acetabulum faces the wrong way it can cause jamming of the neck of the femur against edge of the acetabulum or it may allow the hip to partially dislocate. Depending on the severity of the dysplasia, patients can choose not to have treatment, hip arthroscopy (‘keyhole surgery’), pelvic osteotomy to correct the anatomy, or hip replacement.
A colonoscopy is an examination of
the inside lining of the large
bowel. Any abnormalities will be
visualised on the monitor screen.
Small polyps are usually removed at the same time, or biopsies of large polyps, tumours or inflammation will be taken for further evaluation. It is recommended to undergo colonoscopy at age of 50, or if you have symptoms like bleeding from the back passage, persistent abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, unusual diarrhoea, etc.
Common Presentations in the Head & Neck
Lumps in the head and neck are
common and the cause is usually
benign. There are numerous causes
of head and neck masses.
Nevertheless these may be the presentation of either a malignancy or a chronic infection. If these abnormal structures persist for more than two weeks and there is doubt as to the cause, then the patient should be referred for specialist assessment.
Biological Knee Replacement (BKR) FAQs
Biological Knee Replacement (BKR)
involves repairing a badly damaged
knee with natural tissues instead
of replacing the entire knee with a
metal and plastic Total Knee Replacement (TKR). In theory the BKR should not ‘wear out’, because it really consists of returning the knee to its uninjured state and giving it a second chance. Essentially repairing, reconstructing or replacing each structure that is broken in the knee. Exactly what is needed will vary between individuals. At best, it could give one a near-normal knee, and allow one to play sport.
Haemorrhoids: Management update and a word of caution
There are three cushions present in
the normal anal canal, which
contribute 10 15-20% anal closure
pressure and are important for both
flatus and faecal continence. Haemorrhoids occur when these vascular cushions become congested and swollen, and when the condition becomes severe, they can prolapsed out of the anal canal. There are various treatments to Haemorrhoids, in which stapled haemorroidopexy is commonly used nowadays.
ACL is a tough band of collagen
inside your knee joining your thigh
bone to your shin bone and is vital
to controls the complex gliding and
bending movement of the knee which allow people to do everything from walking slowly to ballet and gymnastics. ACL can be torn if you twist your knee too far or change direction too quickly. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of acute ACL ruptures is missed. Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction is employed which has superior rotational stability.
Ankle Sprain FAQs
A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.
Achilles Tendinopathy FAQs
Achilles tendinopathy refers to
diseases of the Achilles tendon,
which often caused by degenerative
problems with combination of
intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This article will focus on non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Non-operative treatments are often preferred over conservative treatment which echoes the histological evidence of a degenerative disease process that has poor capacity for healing.
Excessive sweating in the palms
(palmar hyperhidrosis) is a common
condition affecting about 1 to 4 %
of the population. Unfortunately
non-surgical means do not work very well, whereas open approach thoracic sympathectomy has not been popular due to its operational size and risks are high for a relatively “benign” condition. Now this surgery can be performed via a minimally invasive approach with minimal risk and successful rate is nearly 100%. There are usually two or three small wounds (2mm – 3mm) which are virtually painless.
Sacroiliac Joint Pain FAQs
Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a
challenging condition affecting 15%
to 25% of patients with axial low
back pain, for which there is no
standard long-term treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that historical and physical examination findings and radiological imaging are insufficient to diagnose SI joint pain. The most commonly used method to diagnose the SI joint as a pain generator is with small volume local anaesthetic blocks. In the article, I will try to explain the diagnostic methods and available treatments in detail.