A colonoscopy is an examination of
the inside lining of the large
bowel. Any abnormalities will be
visualised on the monitor screen.
Small polyps are usually removed at the same time, or biopsies of large polyps, tumours or inflammation will be taken for further evaluation. It is recommended to undergo colonoscopy at age of 50, or if you have symptoms like bleeding from the back passage, persistent abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, unusual diarrhoea, etc.
Scoliosis: a common condition which is frequently misunderstood
Scoliosis, being one of the most
prevalent back deformities
affecting growing children, with
potentially dire consequences,
stirs notable anxiety among patients and their families. There are three common types of scoliosis that affect children: idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. Three evidence-based treatment options include: Observation, Brace treatment, and surgery. Surgery for scoliosis has been made very safe by major advances in surgical techniques including surgical navigation and the use of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.
Chronic Pain after Ankle Injury
Ankle injuries are one of the most
common sports injuries, accounting
for 10-20% of injuries in different
sports. Ankle injuries can be
divided into: soft tissue (ligamentous/joint capsule) injury, bone injury (fracture/contusion), or combined. Soft tissue injuries (ankle sprain) are far more common than fractures (80% vs. 10%). Most ankle sprains heal without persistent pain or chronic disability after conservative management (RICE and physiotherapy), but 20-40% of patients have persistent problems. Two common sources of chronic pain and disability are ankle impingement and persistent ankle instability. Both ankle impingement and persistent ankle instability are usually treated non-surgically first, if the symptoms are not relieved after a period of time, patients can undergo ankle arthroscopy, a well established procedure which has fewer complications and quicker recovery.
Common Presentations in the Head & Neck
Lumps in the head and neck are
common and the cause is usually
benign. There are numerous causes
of head and neck masses.
Nevertheless these may be the presentation of either a malignancy or a chronic infection. If these abnormal structures persist for more than two weeks and there is doubt as to the cause, then the patient should be referred for specialist assessment.
Stomach Ulcers & Related Conditions FAQs
Indigestion is a common symptom for
city dwellers, and is usually
caused by either gastritis or
ulcers. Gastritis refers to
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and could lead to ulcers if left untreated. There are many causes for gastritis or ulcers: a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); certain aspirin or aspirin containing drugs; smoking; alcohol; excessive stomach acid; irregular eating habits; stress, etc. The best way to diagnose these conditions is by gastroscopy, which uses a thin flexible tube with a micro-camera attached to its tip, which displays images on a monitor in real time.
Acetabular Dysplasia FAQs
Acetabular dysplasia is a condition
in which the socket of the hip
joint is too shallow, or facing the
wrong way. If the acetabulum is too
shallow, it will result in too much pressure on the articular cartilage, with subsequent failure, and arthritis of the hip joint. If the acetabulum faces the wrong way it can cause jamming of the neck of the femur against edge of the acetabulum or it may allow the hip to partially dislocate. Depending on the severity of the dysplasia, patients can choose not to have treatment, hip arthroscopy (‘keyhole surgery’), pelvic osteotomy to correct the anatomy, or hip replacement.
OA Knee FAQs
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most
common form of arthritis, is a
chronic, degenerative, joint
disease that affects mostly
middle-aged and older adults. It is characterised by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone. Several risk factors are associated with osteoarthritis, including: heredity, obesity, injury, and overuse. Knee osteoarthritis is not curable, but manageable. There are several specific treatments for osteoarthritis and they are chosen based on: your age, overall health, and medical history, extent of the condition, your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies, expectation for the course of the condition, and your opinion or preference.
An “Instant Cure” for Obesity
Despite vigorous dieting and
exercise (or lack of it!), for
some, those extra kilos just
won’t go away. So is there an
instant cure for obesity? Well the simple answer is NO! Surgery is the closest thing there is to a cure, though not an instant one, for obesity. Surgical procedures for weight reduction can be broadly divided into two types. Occasionally, a combination of these procedures may be required.
Diagnosis of Low Back Pain FAQs
Accurate diagnosis of back pain
isn’t always easy. The human
spine is very complex, so it can be
difficult to pinpoint the exact
cause of low back pain or other symptoms. Additionally, other factors, like depression, anxiety, or stress, can contribute to the symptoms of back pain. MRI scanning is safe and produces outstanding images of the spine, but, unfortunately, it doesn’t show ‘pain’, therefore, in more complex cases of back pain it can often be very helpful to inject X-ray dye and local anaesthetic into the back to identify, and in some cases, treat, the painful structures.
Ankle Sprain FAQs
A sprain is a tear of a ligament.
Ligament tears can vary from very
minor - a few fibres stretched - to
complete tears of the entire
ligament. The most common type of sprain is a lateral ankle sprain, where the ligaments on the outer part of the ankle joint are sprained. The most important part of treatment for ankle sprains is physiotherapy supervised rehabilitation to restore strength and balance. Sometimes people with many years of ankle instability from an old injury that was never properly rehabilitated can recover with a good physiotherapy programme.